Middle East and North Africa Narrows Gender Gap in 2018
· Egypt’s performance sees an improvement in wage equality and educational attainment, however the country loses one point in global ranking
· The Arab World’s most gender-equal economy is Tunisia, ranking 119th followed by the UAE (121) and Kuwait (126)
· The gender gap across the MENA region closed narrowly in 2018 however it remains the world’s least gender-equal region in the world
· Iceland remains the world’s most gender-equal country. At the current rate of change, the global gender gap will take 108 years to close; economic gender parity remains 202 years off
Geneva, Switzerland: The gender gap across the Middle East and North Africa maintained its positive direction in 2018, although the region still trails every other region in the world in terms of its efforts to achieve gender equality, according to the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report 2018, which is published on December 18th, 2018.
Egypt, which lands 7thoverall in the region, secured an improvement in the wage equality and the educational attainment pillars. However, despite this improvement, Egypt’s overall ranking saw a slight one point drop fto 135thplace globally, this is due to weakened performance in the other pillars measured in the report.
Regionally, Despite continued progress it will take the Middle East and North Africaeconomies 153 years to close the gender gap at the current rate of change. The highest-placed economy in our index is Tunisia, which ranks 119. The United Arab Emirates(121st, 64.2%) sees improvements in gender parity in the legislators, senior officials and managers and healthy life expectancy indicators, but a widening and counterbalancing gap in wage equality. Saudi Arabia(141st, 59%) shows modest progress, but marks improvement on wage equality and women’s labour force participation, as well as a smaller gender gap in secondary and tertiary education.
The Global Gender Gap in 2018
Stagnation in the proportion of women in the workplace and women’s declining representation in politics, coupled with greater inequality in access to health and education, offset improvements in wage equality and the number of women in professional positions, leaving the global gender gap only slightly reduced in 2018. This is according to the Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report 2018, published today.
According to the report, the world has closed 68% of its gender gap, as measured across four key pillars: economic opportunity; political empowerment; educational attainment; and health and survival. While only a marginal improvement on 2017, the move is nonetheless welcome as 2017 was the first year since the report was first published in 2006 that the gap between men and women widened.
At the current rate of change, the data suggest that it will take 108 years to close the overall gender gap and 202 years to bring about parity in the workplace.
Within the global headline figures, it is possible to perceive a number of trends that are defining the gender gap in 2018. Of the four pillars measured, only one – economic opportunity – narrowed its gender gap. This is largely due to a narrower income gap between men and women, which stands at nearly 51% in 2018, and the number of women in leadership roles, which stands at 34% globally.
However, in the same economic pillar, data suggest that fewer women are participating in the workforce. This a worrisome development for which there are a number of potential reasons. One is that automation is having a disproportionate impact on roles traditionally performed by women. At the same time, women are under-represented in growing areas of employment that require STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) skills and knowledge. Another potential reason is that the infrastructure needed to help women enter or re-enter the workforce – such as childcare and eldercare – is under-developed and unpaid work remains primarily the responsibility of women. The corollary is that the substantial investments made by many economies to close the education gap are failing to generate optimal returns in the form of growth.
The other three pillars – education, health and politics – saw their gender gaps widen in 2018. In terms of political empowerment, the year-on-year deterioration can be partly attributed to the lower tenure of women in head-of-state roles around the world. However, data also suggest that a regional divergence is taking place, with 22 Western economies witnessing an improvement in political empowerment for women as opposed to a widening in the rest of the world. When it comes to women in parliament, these Western economies – which collectively have closed 41% of the gap – saw progress reverse in 2018.
“The economies that will succeed in the Fourth Industrial Revolution will be those that are best able to harness all their available talent. Proactive measures that support gender parity and social inclusion and address historical imbalances are therefore essential for the health of the global economy as well as for the good of society as a whole,” said Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum.
From STEM to AI: a new frontier in the global gender gap
While the gender gap in STEM is well chronicled, new analysis conducted in collaboration with LinkedIn points to a glaring gender gap that is developing among AI professionals, where women represent only 22% of the workforce. This gap is three times larger than in other industry talent pools. The analysis also suggests that, in addition to being outnumbered three to one, women in AI are less likely to be positioned in senior roles or signal expertise in high-profile, emerging AI skills. The LinkedIn data suggest that women with AI skills are more likely to be employed as data analysts, researchers, information managers and teachers, whereas men are more likely to be employed as software engineers, heads of engineering, heads of IT and chief executives – more lucrative and senior positions.
Given the depth of the talent gender gap in AI, there is a clear need for proactive measures to prevent a deepening of the gender gap in other industries where AI skills are in increasing demand. These include traditionally male-dominated industries such as manufacturing, hardware and networking as well as software and IT services, as well as traditionally female sectors such as non-profits, healthcare and education.
“Industries must proactively hardwire gender parity in the future of work through effective training, reskilling and upskilling interventions and tangible job transition pathways, which will be key to narrowing these emerging gender gaps and reversing the trends we are seeing today. It’s in their long-term interest because diverse businesses perform better,” said Saadia Zahidi, Head of the Centre for the New Economy and Society and Member of the Managing Board, World Economic Forum.
The Global Gender Gap Index in 2018
Having closed more than 85.8% of its overall gender gap,Icelandholds the top spot in the Index for the 10th consecutive year. It has remained one of the fastest-improving countries in the world since 2006. Despite its top performance, the country has seen a slight regression on economic participation and opportunity after an increased gender gap in the number of women legislators, senior officials and managers.
Other economies in the top 10 include Nordic countries Norway(2nd, 83.5%), Sweden (3rd, 82.2%), and Finland (4th, 82.1%), as well asNicaragua (5th, 80.9%), which rose one spot, overtaking Rwanda (6th, 80.4%), whose steady multi-year climb has come to a halt for the first time. The newest entrant to the top 10 is Namibia(10th, 78.9%), the second country from the sub-Saharan Africa region to do so.
Among the G20 group of countries, Franceonce again leads in 12th place (77.9%), dropping one spot from last year, followed by Germany(14th, 77.6%), the United Kingdom(15th, 77.4%), Canada(16th, 75.5%) and South Africa (19th, 75.5%). The United Statesdrops two places to 51st (72%) and six countries rank 100 or lower – China (103rd, 67.3%), India(108th, 66.5%), Japan(110th, 66.2%), Republic ofKorea(115th, 65.7%) Turkey(130th, 62.8%) and Saudi Arabia(141st, 59%).
At 75.8%, Western Europeis, on average, the region with the highest level of gender parity. At current rates of progress, the overall gender gap in the region will be closed in 61 years. It is home to four of the top five performers in the index – Iceland, Norway, Sweden andFinland. Switzerland’s performance (20th, 75.5%) remains stable since last year, with progress on political empowerment counterbalanced by a widening gender gap on economic participation and opportunity.
After making progress on closing its gender gap for six consecutive years, sub-Saharan Africa’s gender gap has started to widen again. Rwanda(6th, 80.4%) still leads in the region, despite moving down two ranks after reversal in progress on economic participation and opportunity. Namibia’srise is partly due to an increased share of women in parliament. South Africa(19th, 75.5%) registers some progress on the political empowerment subindex but also a slight decline in wage equality.
With an average remaining gap of 29.3%, it will take Eastern Europe and Central Asia153 years to close the gender gap. Latvia (17th, 75.8%),Czech Republic (82nd, 69.3%)andSlovak Republic(83rd, 69.3%) have fully closed their health and survival and educational attainment gender gaps. The Russian Federation (75th, 70.1%) fully closed its gender gap in secondary education this year and sees improvements in wage equality and women in leadership, yet other countries’ accelerated progress in the political empowerment dimension see the country moving down a few ranks from last year.
Home of two of the overall Index’s top 10 performers, and with an average remaining gender gap of 31.7%, East Asia and the Pacificscores in the middle of the range. While only four countries in the region have fully closed their education attainment gender gap, more than half of countries in this region have closed the gender gap for professional and technical workers, indicating a relatively successful integration of tertiary-educated, higher-skilled women into the labour force. Out of 18 countries in the region covered by the Index, 14 have increased their overall scores compared to last year.
With an average remaining gender gap of 27.5%, North Americais one of the regions that has made the most progress overall. Canada(16th, 77.1%) maintains its top spot in the region as well as its position in the global top 20, with modest improvements across a range of gender parity indicators this year. The United States(51st, 72%), on the other hand, has moved down two spots since last year, with modest improvements in economic opportunity and participation offset by a decrease in gender parity in ministerial-level positions.
South Asia is the second-lowest-scoring region, with a remaining gender gap of 34.2%, ahead of the Middle East and North Africa, and behind sub-Saharan Africa. Bangladesh (48th, 72.1%) is the region’s top performer and breaks into the global top five on political empowerment, despite a widening gap in labour force participation. India(108th, 66.5%) records improvements in wage equality for similar work and fully closed its tertiary education gap for the first time, but progress lags on health and survival, remaining the world’s least improved country on this subindex over the past decade.
Centre for the New Economy and Society
The report is part of the Forum’s Centre for the New Economy and Society, which aims to build dynamic and inclusive economies and societies that provide a future of opportunities for all. It serves as a platform to understand and anticipate emerging economic and social trends and adapt policies and practices to our rapidly evolving context. A portion of the centre’s work focuses on shaping frameworks for closing economic gender gaps, fostering diversity and promoting inclusive growth. In particular, the centre serves as an accelerator for a global network of national Closing the Gender Gap Task Forces, which aim to increase women’s participation in the workforce; close the pay gap between men and women; help more women advance into leadership; hardwire gender parity in the future of work; and amplify the efforts of individual companies through global business commitments for accelerating gender parity.